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Guillaume Apollinaire

Photograph of Guillaume Apollinaire in spring 1916 after his shrapnel wound to the temple Guillaume Apollinaire (; 26 August 1880 – 9 November 1918) was a French poet, playwright, short story writer, novelist, and art critic of Polish descent.

Apollinaire is considered one of the foremost poets of the early 20th century, as well as one of the most impassioned defenders of Cubism and a forefather of Surrealism. He is credited with coining the first term in 1911 for the new art movement, and of coining the latter in 1917 to describe the works of Erik Satie. Finally the term Orphism (1912) is of his. Apollinaire wrote one of the earliest works described as Surrealist, the play ''The Breasts of Tiresias'' (1917), which was used as the basis for the 1947 opera ''Les mamelles de Tirésias''.

Two years after being wounded in World War I, he died in the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918 at age 38.
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