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Guillaume Apollinaire

Photograph of Guillaume Apollinaire in spring 1916 after his shrapnel wound to the temple Guillaume Apollinaire (; 26 August 18809 November 1918), born Wilhelm Albert Włodzimierz Apolinary Kostrowicki, was a French poet, playwright, short story writer, novelist, and art critic of Polish descent.

Apollinaire is considered one of the foremost poets of the early 20th century, as well as one of the most impassioned defenders of Cubism and a forefather of Surrealism. He is credited for adopting the term ''Cubism'' (1911) to describe the new art movement, and for coining the terms "Orphism" (1912) and "Surrealism" (1917). He wrote one of the earliest works described as surrealist, the play ''The Breasts of Tiresias'' (1917, used as the basis for a 1947 opera).

Two years after being wounded in World War I, he died in the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918 at age 38.
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