Gaius Julius Caesar (Suetonius, ''Divus Julius'' 76.1). Official name after deification in 42 BC: ''Divus Iulius'' ("The Divine Julius").}} (Classical Latin orthography: CAIVS IVLIVS CAESAR, ; 13 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC), mostly known as Julius Caesar (Classical Latin: IVLIVS CAESAR), was a Roman politician, general, and notable author of Latinprose. He played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire.
These achievements granted him unmatched military power and threatened to eclipse the standing of Pompey, who had realigned himself with the Senate after the death of Crassus in 53 BC. With the Gallic Wars concluded, the Senate ordered Caesar to step down from his military command and return to Rome. Caesar refused the order, and instead marked his defiance in 49 BC by crossing the Rubicon with the 13th Legion, leaving his province and illegally entering Roman Italy under arms. Civil war resulted, and Caesar's victory in the war put him in an unrivalled position of power and influence.
After assuming control of government, Caesar began a programme of social and governmental reforms, including the creation of the Julian calendar. He centralised the bureaucracy of the Republic and was eventually proclaimed "dictator in perpetuity", giving him additional authority. But the underlying political conflicts had not been resolved, and on the Provided by Wikipedia
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