Jean Paulhan (2 December 1884 – 9 October 1968) was a French writer, literary critic and publisher, director of the literary magazine ''Nouvelle Revue Française'' (NRF) from 1925 to 1940 and from 1946 to 1968. He was a member (Seat 6, 1963–68) of the Académie française. He was born in Nîmes (Gard) and died in Paris. Paulhan's father was the philosopher Frédéric Paulhan and his mother was Jeanne Thérond. From 1908 to 1910 he worked as a teacher in Madagascar, and he later translated Malagasy poems, or Hainteny, into French;
In 1925 Paulhan succeeded Jacques Rivière as editor of the NRF. In 1935 he launched a similar but more luxuriously-produced journal ''Mesures'', with the patronage of Henry Church.
One of his most famous works of literary criticism was ''The Flowers of Tarbes, or Terror in Literature'' (1941), a study of the nature of language in fiction. Paulhan also wrote several autobiographical short stories; English translations of several appeared in the collection ''Progress in Love on the Slow Side''. During the Second World War, Paulhan was an early and active member of the French Resistance and was arrested by the German Gestapo. After the war he founded ''Cahiers de la Pléiade'' and in 1953 re-launched La Nouvelle Revue Française.
Paulhan provoked controversy by opposing independence for Algeria, and supporting the French military during the Algerian War; this resulted in a rift between Paulhan and his friend Maurice Blanchot.