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Underground Press Syndicate

The Underground Press Syndicate (UPS), later known as the Alternative Press Syndicate (APS), was a network of countercultural newspapers and magazines formed in mid-1966 by the publishers of five early underground papers: the ''East Village Other,'' the ''Los Angeles Free Press,'' the ''Berkeley Barb'', ''The Paper,'' and ''Fifth Estate.'' As it evolved, the Underground Press Syndicate created an Underground Press Service, and later its own magazine. For many years the Underground Press Syndicate was run by Tom Forcade, who later founded ''High Times'' magazine.

A UPS roster published in November 1966 listed 14 underground papers, but within a few years the number had mushroomed. A 1971 roster, published in Abbie Hoffman's ''Steal This Book'', listed 271 UPS-affiliated papers in the United States, Canada, and Europe. According to historian John McMillian, writing in his 2010 book ''Smoking Typewriters'', the underground press' combined readership eventually reached into the millions.
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